Source: MARCH OF THE TITANS - A HISTORY OF THE
WHITE RACE - Version 6 - Last updated November 2004 Appendix Two: Racial
Mixing in Selected European Groups
Part 4: Mendel's laws of inheritance
Version 6 - Last updated November 2004
German monk, Gregor Mendelev, developed the laws of inheritance which still
define our understanding of mixed gene pools. The
Mendelian Laws of inheritance are critical to a proper understanding of the
composition of racially mixed populations. They determine to what extent
certain racial characteristics are visible to the casual observer, and which
are dominant and which are recessive.
Ê A chromosome is the name
given to any of the linear or sometimes circular DNA-containing bodies of
viruses, bacteria, and the nucleus of higher organisms that contain most or
all of the individual's genes.
Ê A gene is a hereditary
unit that occupies a specific location on a specific chromosome and determines
a particular characteristics in an organism. There may be one version or many
different versions of each gene; these different versions are called 'allele'.
Ê Except for identical twins,
all individuals (called ‘phenotypes’) have a unique set of alleles.
Ê Populations with
distinguishing characteristics such as colors or shapes are called genotypes.
Dominant and recessive alleles
Mendel discovered genetics
when he obtained seeds of pea plants that always produced tall plants and
seeds that always produced short plants. He raised the plants and then crossed
them by transferring pollen from one plant to another. He found that plants
from the resultant seeds (first generation) were all tall, but he allowed them
to self-pollinate and produced another generation, three-quarters of which
were tall and one-quarter short.
The laws of hereditary
From his experiments,
Mendel was able to draw the following conclusions:
º There are hereditary
factors (called genes).
º In each phenotype, two
genes exist for each character.
º At the time of sex-cell
formation, the genes of a pair separate equally into the gametes. Geneticists
call this the law of segregation.
º The gametes bear only
one gene for each characteristic.
º Genes for different
characters sort independently of one another at gamete formation. Geneticists
call this the law of independent assortment.
º Gametes join randomly,
irrespective of the alleles they carry. This is extremely important to
consider when viewing mixed race offspring, and accounts for the apparent
random appearance of mixed racial types – some might be very dark, others
might be quite light).
º The characters that
appear in the first generation (in this case, tall plants) are called dominant
and the characters that appear in one-quarter of the second generation are
called recessive. Geneticists call this phenomenon the law of dominance.
Homozygous and heterozygous conditions
Capital letters are used
to schematically represent an allele that determines a dominant character, and
a small letter for one that determines a recessive character.
When the two genes of the
genotype’s pair are of the same type (AA) or (aa), the condition is called
homozygous for that character.
If the two members of a
pair are different (Ab or Ba), the condition is called heterozygous.
Mendel’s original tall
seeds were (AA) and the short (bb). The first generation plants were all (Ab).
The second-generation plants of Mendel's experiment were composed of one-quarter
(AA), one-half (Ab) and one-quarter (bb).
Since tallness was
dominant, both (AA) and (Ab) appeared tall, and the (bb) appeared short,
accounting for the ratio of tall to short.
As this relates to humans,
every somatic (normal body) cell of each individual contains 46 chromosomes,
as 23 diploid pairs. The chromosomes are tightly bundled strands of DNA. A
gene for any particular character occupies a fixed position on one of these 23
With two sets of these 23
strands, the cell contains, for each gene, one allele in duplicate (homozygous)
or two different alleles (heterozygous) for each gene.
There can be many
alternate forms, or alleles, for each gene. The unique combination of alleles
that comprise their diploid chromosomes (called the genotype) defines an
Dominance and recessive alleles
Dominant and recessive
alleles are always relatively positioned to each other: in other words, for a
given gene, allele (A) may be more dominant than allele (B), and (B) more
dominant than (C).
The same holds for
different recessive alleles. In the same genome, one allele will usually prove
dominant over the other. The terms dominant and recessive must be viewed as a
single continuous scale, as relatively dominant or relatively recessive.
Race mixing and the “throwback” gene
In a practical example, if
a pure Black breeds with a pure White, the offspring might emerges with a new
"mutant" recessive allele (a), being heterozygous (i.e., along with a more
dominant one, represented by "Ab").
If that mixed race
individual then marries back into the White genotype pool, statistically, only
half that person’s progeny will carry (a), and only half of the next
A mutant allele may simply
disappear or it may propagate out through many generations before it reappears
through mixing with another individual who also carries that same allele. Only
then will the phenotype appear – this is known popularly known as the
It may take many
generations before a particular combination of alleles (mutant or otherwise)
appears. Such a “throwback” will increase the (aa) population locally, and
even more when (aa) males start mating with (aa) females, making it possible
for an (aa) type to expand in numbers.
A “throwback” text book case: Sandra
In South Africa, a large White population has existed since the
1600s, when Europeans first started settling that country. Over the 400 years
since, the proximity of so many different races has inevitably led to a degree
Laing was born in 1955 in Piet Retief, a conservative small town in what was
then Apartheid South Africa. Her Afrikaans-speaking
parents were classified White, as were her two brothers, and they all appeared
on the face of things, to be White.
However, when Sandra was
born, her skin was noticeably darker, and became more so as the years passed.
Her hair texture and features had become so obviously “colored” or mixed race
by the time she went to school that she was forced to leave the White school
systems and enter that set aside for non-Whites.
The Sandra Laing case
remains as one of the most striking examples of recessive alleles finally
having recombined after several generations, and once again forming an
individual reflective of racial mixing which occurred several generations
W.E. DU BOIS - "Black" American Activist
W.E. du Bois (1868-1963),
was an African American activist who conducted the initial research on the
Black experience in the United States. His work paved the way for the civil
rights, Pan-African, and Black Power movements in the United States. He coined
the phrase "Black Power" and who is still today highly regarded in Black
Yet Du Bois himself , as
can be seen from his picture (left) was clearly another example of the
Mendelian Laws of Inheritance at work: and was, on the face of it, not "Black"
at all. In his particular case, the recessive "White" alleles combined in his
parents to produce a particularly White-looking individual.
Mixed racial types in the middle east
Middle East, racial mixing has been occurring for many thousands of years,
with the inbreeding amongst already racially mixed types causing the mixed
grouping to become the dominant grouping in all of these countries.